Journal of Structural Engineering & Applied Mechanics - Golden Light Publishing ® | Trabzon

Journal of Structural Engineering & Applied Mechanics

ARTICLES

Hernan Martin Hernandez Morales

Lead-rubber seismic isolation bearings (LRB) have been installed in a number of essential and critical structures, like hospitals, universities and bridges, in order to provide them with period lengthening and the capacity of dissipating a considerable amount of energy to mitigate the effects of strong ground motions. Therefore, studying the damage mechanics of this kind of devices is fundamental to understand and accurately describe their thermo-mechanical behavior, so that seismically isolated structures can be designed more safely. Hitherto, the hysteretic behavior of LRB has been modeled using 1) Newtonian mechanics and empirical curve fitting degradation functions, or 2) heat conduction theories and idealized bilinear curves which include degradation effects. The reason for using models that are essentially phenomenological or that contain some adjusted parameters is the fact that Newton’s universal laws of motion lack the term to account for degradation and energy loss of a system. In this paper, the Unified Mechanics Theory – which integrates laws of Thermodynamics and Newtonian mechanics – is used to model the force-displacement response of LRB. Indeed, there is no need for curve fitting techniques to describe their damage behavior because degradation is calculated at every point using entropy generation along the Thermodynamics State Index (TSI) axis. A finite element model of a lead-rubber bearing was constructed in ABAQUS, where a user material subroutine UMAT was implemented to define the Unified Mechanics Theory equations and the viscoplastic constitutive model for lead. Finite element analysis results were compared with experimental test data. Hitherto, the hysteretic behavior of LRB has been modeled using 1) Newtonian mechanics and empirical curve fitting degradation functions, or 2) heat conduction theories and idealized bilinear curves which include degradation effects. The reason for using models that are essentially phenomenological or that contain some adjusted parameters is the fact that Newton’s universal laws of motion lack the term to account for degradation and energy loss of a system. In this paper, the Unified Mechanics Theory – which integrates laws of Thermodynamics and Newtonian mechanics – is used to model the force-displacement response of LRB. Indeed, there is no need for curve fitting techniques to describe their damage behavior because degradation is calculated at every point using entropy generation along the Thermodynamics State Index (TSI) axis. A finite element model of a lead-rubber bearing was constructed in ABAQUS, where a user material subroutine UMAT was implemented to define the Unified Mechanics Theory equations and the viscoplastic constitutive model for lead. Finite element analysis results were compared with experimental test data.

https://doi.org/10.31462/jseam.2021.04213226


Alper Karadiş Kabil Çetin Taha Yasin Altıok Ali Demir

Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites have been frequently used in engineering applications in recent years. GFRP composites produced by using glass fiber and epoxy resin have significant advantages such as high strength, lightness, and resistance against corrosion. However, GFRP composites exhibit a more brittle behavior than steel bars. This study aims to investigate both the experimental and numerical bending behavior of slabs with GFRP bars, steel bars, and polypropylene fiber. Within the scope of experimental studies, 5 slabs were built. Two slabs called SS-1 and SS-2 have only steel bars. Two slabs called GFRPS-1 and GFRPS-2 have only GFRP composite bars. A slab called GFRPS-F has both GFRP composite bars and polypropylene fibers. Polypropylene fibers are added to fresh concrete to improve the slab’s ductility. Three-point bending tests have been carried out on the slabs. All slabs are subjected to monotonic increasing distributed loading until collapse. As a result of tests, GFRPS slabs have carried %53 higher load than SS slabs. However, the SS slabs have exhibited a more ductile behavior compared to the GFRPS slabs. GFRPS slabs have more and larger crack width than other slabs. The addition of 5% polypropylene fiber by volume to concrete has a significant contributed to ductility and tensile behavior of slab. The average displacement value of GFRPS-F slab is 22.3% larger than GFRPS slab. GFRPS-F slab has better energy consumption capacity than other slabs. The energy consumption capacity of GFRPS-F slab is 1.34 and 1.38 times that of SS and GFRPS slabs, respectively. The number of cracks in GFRPS-F slab is fewer than GFRPS slabs. The fibers have contributed to the serviceability of the GFRPS slabs by limiting the displacement and the crack width. GFRPS-F exhibits elastoplastic behavior and almost returns to its first position when the loading is stopped. In addition, experimental results are verified with numerical results obtained by using Abaqus software. Finally, it is concluded that GFRP composite bars can be safely used in field concretes, concrete roads, prefabricated panel walls, and slabs.

https://doi.org/10.31462/jseam.2021.04227238


Mehmet Fatih Şahan Fatih Ali Öncel İsmail Ünsal

This study investigated the effect of fiber ratio on the impact behavior of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete cube and beam samples. Plain concrete mixtures for control samples and polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete mixtures with fiber ratios of %0.22, %0.44, and %0.66 by volume were prepared. An instrumented drop-weight impact system was used for the dynamic tests. Static compression tests, three-point bending tests, and impact tests were performed on beam samples (with the dimension of 100×100×500 mm). Static compression and impact tests were performed on cube samples (with the size of 100 mm). It was observed that the fracture properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete for both cube and beam samples were better than the control samples under impact. The crack width in the beams under the impact decreased with the increase in polypropylene fiber ratio. The cube and beam concrete samples reinforced with polypropylene fibers absorbed the impact energy better than the control samples.

https://doi.org/10.31462/jseam.2021.04239248


Erdal Öner

This paper presents a semi-analytical method to investigate the frictionless contact mechanics between a functionally graded material (FGM) coating and an orthotropic substrate when the system is indented by a rigid flat punch. From the bottom, the orthotropic substrate is completely bonded to the rigid foundation. The body force of the orthotropic substrate is ignored in the solution, while the body force of the FGM coating is considered. An exponential function is used to define the smooth variation of the shear modulus and density of the FGM coating, and the variation of Poisson’s ratio is assumed to be negligible. The partial differential equation system for the FGM coating and the orthotropic substrate is solved analytically through Fourier transformations. After applying boundary and interface continuity conditions to the mixed boundary value problem, the contact problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. The Gauss–Chebyshev integration method is then used to convert the singular integral equation into a system of linear equations, which are solved using an appropriate iterative algorithm to calculate the contact stress under the rigid flat punch. The parametric analyses presented here demonstrate the effects of normalized punch length, material inhomogeneity, dimensionless press force, and orthotropic material type on contact stresses at interfaces, critical load factor, and initial separation distance between FGM coating and orthotropic substrate. The developed solution procedures are verified through the comparisons made to the results available in the literature. The solution methodology and numerical results presented in this paper can provide some useful guidelines for improving the design of multibody indentation systems using FGMs and anisotropic materials.

https://doi.org/10.31462/jseam.2021.04249266


Mohammed Ali Hjaji Hasan M. Nagiar Moftah M. Krar Ezedine G. Allaboudi

Starting with total potential energy variational principle, the governing equilibrium coupled equations for the torsional-warping static analysis of open thin-walled beams under various torsional and warping moments are derived. The formulation captures shear deformation effects due to warping. The exact closed form solutions for torsional rotation and warping deformation functions are then developed for the coupled system of two equations. The exact solutions are subsequently used to develop a family of shape functions which exactly satisfy the homogeneous form of the governing coupled equations. A super-convergent finite beam element is then formulated based on the exact shape functions. Key features of the beam element developed include its ability to (a) eliminate spatial discretization arising in commonly used finite elements, and (e) eliminate the need for time discretization. The results based on the present finite element solution are found to be in excellent agreement with those based on exact solution and ABAQUS finite beam element solution at a small fraction of the computational and modelling cost involved.

https://doi.org/10.31462/jseam.2021.04267281